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   Rias Gremory is the main female protagonist of High School DxD. She is the next heiress of the Gremory Clan after her older brother, Sirzechs, took the title of Lucifer. She is the only daughter and youngest child of Zeoticus and Venelana Gremory, the aunt of Millicas Gremory, and the cousin of Sairaorg and Magdaran Bael. She is known as the Crimson-Haired Ruin Princess. She is a first-year college student at Kuoh Academy, the former President of the Occult Research Club, and the school's number-one beauty, as well as one of Kuoh Academy's Two Great Ladies alongside Akeno Himejima. She is also one of Issei's fiancees.

 

Appearance

   Rias is a beautiful young woman with white skin, blue eyes (blue-green in the anime, season 1-3) inherited from her father, Zeoticus, and a buxom figure. Her body measurements are [B99-W58-H90 cm] [B39-W23-H35 in]. Her body weight is [58 kg] [128 lbs]. Her most distinctive feature is her long, beautiful crimson hair which she also inherited from her father, that reaches down to her thighs with a single hair strand (known in Japan as ahoge) sticking out from the top. Her hair also has loose bangs covering her forehead and side bangs framing her face. Rias' height is 172 cm. (5 feet 8 inches), making her one of the tallest female characters of the series.

   Although Rias has worn various types of clothing throughout the series, her most commonly worn outfit is the Kuoh Academy girls' school uniform, which consists of a white long-sleeved, button-down shirt (short sleeves for spring/summer), with a black ribbon on her shirt collar worn under a black shoulder cape and a matching button-down corset, a magenta skirt with white accents, and brown dress shoes over white crew-length socks. Rias also tends to wear seductive lingerie and thongs, especially when she has a desire to sleep with Issei.

 

HER BEST ACTION FIGURES AND "SEXYS"  ;)

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Personality

  Rias is a very kind and compassionate optimist, especially to her servants and people close to her. She gets angry and violent whenever people insult her or her peerage, showing a fiery side to her. This also plays into the fact that she dislikes cruelty towards people, as shown with her disgust over Marius Tepes, who abused his own sister for his own benefit, and how she killed the Fallen Angels, such as Mittelt, Dohnaseek, Kalawarner, and Raynare for their cruel treatment of Issei. She thinks of Issei as a special person and always gets jealous when girls are around him, becoming a totally different person when she sees him and other girls together, or when it comes to training. Despite her mature stature like a woman, Rias tends to act her true age and become frustrated whenever girls flirt with Issei.

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  She is proud of her family's name, but she does not like being seen as Rias of the Gremory Family. The reason for her living in the human world (as revealed in Volume 2 of the novels) is because there, everyone sees her as Rias, not as a Devil or as the Crimson-Haired Ruin Princess. Despite being seductive like Akeno, both of the girls are still innocent to love, as both of them become their age whenever around Issei or on a date with him.

  She enjoys teasing Issei and Asia (from Volume 3 of the novels onward), but at the same time makes it clear (to Asia or any girl) that Issei is hers, and she does not want to share him at all (It is revealed in Volume 3 of the novels that the Gremory Family and their servants are beings with extraordinary affection among the Devils, so Rias is no exception). She has no problem with showing Issei her breasts or sleeping naked with him (which she always does according to her and she claims she can't sleep without being nude or without Issei).

After becoming Issei's girlfriend, Rias begins to show more confidence in her relationship with Issei and is no longer jealous or angry when Issei is with other girls like she previously was, even accepting Issei's dream of having a harem and letting the girls have dates with him. However, Rias still shows some signs of jealousy such as when Issei doesn't spend enough time with her, but still believes in him and loves him. Like Akeno, Rias shows a sign of dependence toward Issei (possibly lesser than the former) as Rias will lose her will to fight and lead.

She holds her older brother, Sirzechs, in high regard (despite her older brother's antics of being a siscon) because she deeply cares for him. When she was a child, she was entirely dependent on him and held him in admiration, while also feeling inferior to him at the same time.

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Thursday, 16 May 2019 22:41

Top: Anime Girls of all time

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One of the many reasons why we love anime so much are the countless beautiful characters. Their beauty and allure captures our hearts and keeps us up during the late hours for furious anime marathons!

Now, without further delay, I present to you my list of the most beautiful female anime characters of all time.

 

14. Kaga Kouko: Golden Time

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Almost every guys dream girl (except for Mitsuo) is Kaga Kouko of Golden Time. This amazing beauty can be both wild and loving at the same time. She is a freshman law student that is always seen in stylish clothes. Despite her bratty attitude (at times), she can be one of the most devoted girlfriends in anime. She can be a bit clingy at times, but that is only because she is so devoted. Smart, elegant, and loving, she is unforgettable! Unless you have amnesia like her boyfriend Banri. She is a major reason why Golden Time ranks in at number five for thebest romance anime of all time.

 

 

13. Inoue Orihime: Bleach

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Whether in Karakura Town or in the Soul Society, Inoue Orihihime of Bleach has always been the talk of the town for her beauty. She is an optimistic and caring girl whose naïveté can hide her intelligence and strong perceptive skills. She has a very active imagination and can get carried away with ideas. Because of her unquestionable womanly charms, she is often the subject of jealousy among girls her age, as we witnessed in Hueco Mundo. But anyone who dares to leave her off a list of beautiful anime women would incur the wrath of a fanbase scattered all over different worlds like Earth, the Soul Society, and Hueco Mundo!

 

12. Chitoge Kirisaki: Nisekoi

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Landing at number 12 on this list is Nisekoi's protagonist Chitoge Kirisaki. She is one of the youngest and most energetic characters on this list. She is unique in that she is half-American and grew up in the US. She can be forgetful at times and be quick to attack but she is very nice once she gets to know someone. She starts out as being rather cold due to having difficulty making friends but she eventually warms up. Only a person with the personality of a rock would fail to recognize Chitoge's beauty and charm (yes, I'm referring to you Raku Ichijou). Chitoge is high-spirited and often aggressive, but is also sweet and caring. This memorable character is a big reason why Nisekoi is ranked as the fifth best harem anime of all time.

 

What Are the Different Personality Types in Anime?

All the characters on this list have a fairly wide range of personalities. The medium of anime has many character archetypes that are frequently seen. Here are some common types of female characters.

  • Tsundere: These are characters that switch between having a harsh demeanor to a more softer, demure one. They typically get softer around a love interest before berating them and trying to cover up whatever good deed they have done. Chitoge Kirisaki would be an example of a tsundere.
  • Dandere: These are characters that are quiet and shy. They commonly wear glasses. They can become more talkative when around their love interest.
  • Kuudere: These are cold and distant characters that don't really convey any emotions. They rarely speak and can be very blunt when they do. They often have no facial expressions and speak in a flat tone. Despite their cold exteriors, they can be caring individuals.
  • Deredere: These characters are very cheerful and hyper. They typically show strong affection for their loved ones.
  • Himedere: These characters often have a royal personality and expect to be treated like a princess. Their haughty attitude is usually used to hide some type of weakness or insecurity.

11. Inori Yuzuriha: Guilty Crown

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Guilty Crown's Inori Yuzuriha is one of the most indisputably beautiful characters on this list. She may appear cold and emotionless, especially in the beginning of the series. However, there is more to her allure and personality than that! In fact, she can be one of the most emotional and devoted girls on this list. She became more welcoming after meeting the main protagonist, Shu. She occasionally thinks she is a burden to others despite going out of her way to protect those close to her. She is generally quiet but is efficient in combat. If you are thinking of checking out Inori's series, you can read this review and analysis of Guilty Crown.

 

10. Kuronuma Sawako: Kimi ni Todoke

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One of the gentlest and loveliest girls on this list is Kimi ni Todoke's Kuronuma Sawako. She may be shy, but she is a kind and graceful girl that Kazehaya notices in the beginning. Her pale complexion and black hair makes her resemble the horror character Sadako. A running gag with her is how easily she gets nervous, which gives her a creepy appearance. Kuronuma has always been beautiful, but she has become more charming since she started making more friends, as she can be seen smiling a lot as the series progresses. How could her schoolmates mistake her for Sadako!?

 

9. Boa Hancock: One Piece

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The most beautiful pirate in the world, known as the Pirate Empress and Shichibukai, is Boa Hancock from One Piece. Not one man (okay, except for Luffy and probably Zoro as well) can escape her allure and fall for her. Men literally turn to stone because of her beauty! She is definitely one of the most, if not the most, beautiful woman in the One Piece universe! She can initially appear as selfish or spoiled as she can be cruel to others. She puts on this hard exterior to hide weakness as she had a rough past. She is much more compassionate when she opens up.

 

8. Hinata Hyuga: Naruto/Naruto Shippuden

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Grabbing eighth place is the same character who was able to grab Uzumaki Naruto's heart (yes, a pure-blooded NaruHina fan right here). The one and only Hinata Hyuga. A beautiful but shy girl since she was young, Hinata bloomed into a more graceful but stronger kunoichi of the Leaf. She has always been polite and soft-spoken. She always put the well-being of others before herself. This led others to believe she would never amount to being a strong ninja but she proves them wrong. When Naruto was finally dazzled by her beauty and kindness, what else could we ask for?

 

7. Yukari "Caroline" Hayasaka: Paradise Kiss

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Yukari Hayasake, also known as Caroline, is a beautiful and attractive model from the ParaKiss universe. She was introduced as a character with a dull life, unsure of which path to take. Her mother's persistence to excel in her studies didn't help as she never seems to be pleased with Yukari. Alas, she meets and falls in love with George and the Para-crew, and she becomes a bolder and more exquisite woman who decides to pursue a modeling career. We were sure as hell that her beauty was meant for George and George alone, but that didn't quite workout.

 

6. Mikasa Ackerman: Shingeki no Kyojin

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Attack on Titan/Shingeki no Kyojin's strongest and most beautiful woman made her way to number six on this list! Misaka Ackerman is not just a pretty face, but one of the smartest and most skilled recon corps members, and she is badass. Her tough upbringing has made her appear as cold and stoic to others but she is very loyal to Eren as she dedicates herself to protecting him. She has a strong sense of right and wrong and can remain stoic and level-headed in the most dire situations. Everyone would agree she is beautiful, even Jean notices her. I'm sure even the Titans think so! How could Eren not see her beauty! 

 

5. Senjougahara Hitagi: Bakemonogatari

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Senjougahara is a striking figure with her purple hair and glamorous appearance. She is quickwitted and can be blunt in her speech but she is always sincere as the main protagonist Araragi discovers. She was afflicted by weightlessness due to a crab-like creature. Her family fell victim to con men who claimed they could cure her, which is where her spiteful attitude comes from. Despite Araragi's hesitations, Senjougahara falls in love with him after solving her affliction. She eventually becomes less hostile as a result.

 

4. Kallen Kozuki/Kallen Stadtfeld: Code Geass

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We are now down to the top four prettiest anime girls in the world! No one else deserves fourth place more than this true beauty, Code Geass' Kallen Kozuki. She is a real bishoujo as she is an ojou-sama from a prestigious Brittanian family. She is delicate and graceful by day but is the strongest pilot of the revolutionary Black Knights by night. This makes her a more awesome beauty and a real badass! She is very strong-willed and determined and can be impulsive at times. However, she can be gentle and compassionate. She is skilled in both hand-to-hand combat as well as piloting her mecha. If you are curious about this series, you can read this analysis of Code Geass.

 

3. Kaname Chidori: Full Metal Panic

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And now for our number three pick, I give you Kaname Chidori from Full Metal Panic. The beauty of this gorgeous FMP representative would make you think she is an elegant and refined lady, but do not be fooled (even Kurz was fooled in episode 1). She is one of the most aggressive female protagonists in all of anime. She is hot-headed and has no problem speaking her mind. Nevertheless, this is her charm and something that Sousuke totally understands. It's what he loves about her. She does have a soft side for Sousuke.

 

2. Miyuki Shiba: Mahouka Koukou no Rettosei

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One of the youngest contenders (only 16 and from a 2014 anime series) wins the second place spot on this list. Mahouka Koukou no Rettosei's Miyuki Shiba is definitely one of the loveliest, elegant, graceful, and most beautiful girls on this list. Her beauty borders on divine. Everyone from the Mahouka Koukou no Rettosei world who has seen her is stunned by her exceptional beauty and graceful elegance. Her brother and long-time guardian—the one who is always by her side and observes the movement of every single person around them in order to protect his sister—can surely attest to this. I bet anyone who'd say her beauty is any lesser than this would die by Tatsuya's hand.

 

1. Yuzuki Eba: Kimi no Iru Machi

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Without further ado, I present to you the most beautiful anime character of all, Yuzuki Eba from Kimi no Iru Machi (A Town Where You Live). Her beauty and allure is on a whole new level and would captivate any guy's heart! She is a gentle and somewhat naive girl who makes a big impact on the small town she moves into. Her intriguing personality would make one only think of her. No wonder Haruto and Kazama were head over heels for her! If you haven't seen this series yet, this is a must-watch!

 

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One-Punch Man(Japanese:ワンパンマンHepburn:Wanpanman)is an ongoing Japanesesuperherowebcomiccreated byONEwhich began publication in early 2009.The series quickly wentviral, surpassing 7.9million hits in June 2012.The Japanese shortened nameWanpanmanis a play on the long-running children's characterAnpanman,wanpanbeing a contraction ofwanpanchi("one punch").One-Punch Mantells the story ofSaitama, asuperherowho has grown bored by the absence of challenge in his fight against evil and seeks to find a worthy opponent.Adigitalmangaremake of the series, illustrated byYusuke Murata, began publication onShueisha'sTonari no Young Jumpwebsite in 2012. The chapters are periodically collected and printed intotankōbonvolumes, with nineteen volumes released as of April 4, 2019.Viz Mediahas licensed the remake for English serialization in itsWeekly Shonen Jumpdigital magazine.

Ananimetelevision adaptation byMadhouseaired in Japan between October and December 2015.It wasdubbedin English during the summer of 2016, and later that year a planned second season was announced.On September 25, 2017, it was announced that they would be changing both its production company and director.The second season premiered in April 2019.

Much like its unassuming hero, no one expectedOne-Punch Manto become a worldwide phenomenon when the series first launched. From its humblemangaroots to itsanimationdomination after the release of just one season,One-Punch Manis the comedy superhero the world needs during these dark and trying times.

Season 2 is on the way sometime in 2019, leaving you plenty of time to brush up on your favoriteOne-Punch Mantrivia. Here are the most important facts you need to know about the man with the most powerful punch in the universe.

10 fascinating facts about One-Punch Man

1) One-Punch Man started online, moved to paper, then to your screen

 

Your introduction to One-Punch Man, aka Saitama, was most likely via the acclaimed anime series, but the hero actually started as a webcomic. Created by the anonymous named manga artist ONE, the comic launched online in early 2009, receiving almost 8 million views by June of 2012. You can read it here, provided you know Japanese. Like many webcomics, One-Punch Man’s art gets better as it goes along.

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2) There’s a reason One-Punch Man’s outfit is so plain looking

While other superheroes get wardrobes full of flashy outfits, covering spikes, chains, and armor, One-Punch Man wanders the world in relatively subdued threads. Beyond the flourish of his cape, One-Punch Man wears a simple yellow jumpsuit and red boots and gloves. Even his bald head and subtle eyebrows bypass more expressive anime looks. This was intentional. ONE designed One-Punch Man’s look to be subtle because there are already so many cool-looking characters. Rather than focus on making One-Punch Man look flashy, ONE believed his character’s coolness should come from who they are not how they look.

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3) His outfit is a subtle tribute to a beloved Japanese children’s character

Beyond giving One-Punch Man an unassuming look, the character’s outfit also serves as a tribute to a beloved children’s character. Anpanman, a superhero with a jelly pastry for a head, starred in a manga that ran from 1973 to 2013, and in an anime that debuted in 1988 and still runs to this day. The show is verified as the Guinness World Record holder for the most characters in an animated franchise, with 1,768 characters appearing on the show and in movies between 1988 and 2009. If you look at One-Punch Man’s outfit you can see that it’s just a color-reversed version of Anpanman. In addition, the two characters share names that clearly explain the premise of their abilities.

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4) By saving the Split-Chinned Kid’s life, One-Punch Man changed the world

In episode 1 of the anime and chapter 2 of the manga, fans are introduced to the generously named Split-Chinned Kid, a child with a chin that bears a striking resemblance to testicles. After drawing a pair of nipples on sleeping Crabrante (a humanoid crab character), the Split-Chinned Kid finds his life in danger as the monster lashes out. The intervention of Saitama, before he formally became a hero, is the only thing that saves his life. Little did One-Punch Man know the boy was the grandson of multi-millionaire Agoni, who is so inspired by Saitama’s deed he forms the Hero Association.

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5) One-Punch Man is theoretically almost as fast as the speed of light

During the season 1 finale, One-Punch Man finds himself face to face with Boros, a being almost as powerful as he is. Boros kicks Saitama so hard he flies from Earth to the Moon, only to discover that Saitama is able to jump back to Earth on his own in roughly 1.5 seconds. If the Earth is 238,855 miles away from the moon, and it takes 1.5 seconds to get back to Earth, Saitama is going 159,236 miles per second. The speed of light is 186,282 miles per second. Given Saitama merely jumped and didn’t charge up or get a running start, it is easy to presume his actual top speed when he’s really trying could be pretty close to the speed of light. Right before he dies Boros himself exclaims the hero isn’t using his full power. You can watch the whole the jump for yourself right here.

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6) Threats in the world of One-Punch Man come in five different levels  

Almost nothing causes One-Punch Man to break a sweat, but that doesn’t mean classifications don’t come in handy from time to time. On Saitama’s Earth threats are rated on a five-point scale. Level one is Wolf, meaning the appearance of a standard threat that requires one B-class hero or three C-class heroes, ranked by the Hero Association, to defeat. The Tiger class is a threat that puts many lives at risk, requiring one A-class hero or five B-class heroes to defeat. A Demon threat puts a whole city at risk, requiring 10 A-class heroes or 1 S-Class hero to defeat. The next level is Dragon level, putting multiple cities at risk of destruction. There is no standard for these threats, but we know One-Punch Man can handle them. Finally, a God-level threat endangers all of humanity. It is debatable whether Boros counts as a God-level threat, but given his near defeat of One-Punch Man, we think it’s safe to consider him one.

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7) Saitama makes a point of breathing, but he probably doesn’t have to

Let’s revisit Boros’ kick for one moment. When One-Punch Man lands on the moon after being kicked out of Earth’s atmosphere he’s momentarily stunned. Fans have pointed to the fact that Saitama begins to hold his breath as soon as he notices he’s on the moon as proof that breathing is one of the hero’s weaknesses. Here’s the thing: He had already been on the moon long enough at that point to have the air out of him sucked out by the vacuum of space. Saitama thinks he has to breathe, beginning to hold his breath, but the hero is just going through the motions. Even the vacuum of space can’t take him out.

 

8) One-Punch Man’s workout might not make you the most powerful being on Earth, but it’s actually good for you

While there is obviously more going on in Saitama’s body than his workout regimen, the series makes a point of letting fans know exactly how our hero stays in tip-top shape. His secret? Do 100 push-ups, 100 sit-ups, 100 squats, and 6.2 miles of running every single day, 52 weeks out of the year. The workout is a combination of core training, leg training, and cardio, exercising a wider range of your muscle groups than just running every day. The one downside of this work out is you won’t build a ton of muscle doing it, thanks to the lack of a strength training beyond your normal body weight. On the other hand, that explains why One-Punch Man isn’t absolutely ripped. His work out is designed for lean strength.

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9) Saitama is a fan of his creator’s other work

One-Punch Man’s version of Earth might be different than ours, but that doesn’t mean some things aren’t the same. For example, One-Punch Man creator ONE’s other series, Mob Psycho 100, makes a cameo appearance during Saitama’s childhood. Not as a character, but a series the younger version of the hero is a fan of. In One-Punch Man 200 Yen, an extra chapter included in volume one of the manga, we see Saitama as a weak child, losing fights and getting in trouble at school. During one of these scenes, he’s shown wearing a Mob Psycho 1,000,000 shirt. The favor gets returned in Mob Psycho 100, with Saitama appearing in a dream sequence in Mob Psycho 100 chapter 80.5.

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10) The first season was done by legendary animation studio Madhouse

A large part of the success of the One-Punch Man anime is its breathtaking animation, which combines multiple different styles of anime into the madcap story we know and love. What fans might not know is the studio behind it, Madhouse, is also behind some of the other most popular and important anime titles of the last two decades, including Perfect Blue, Death Note, Ninja Scroll, and Paprika. Sadly, Madhouse won’t be back for the long-delayed second season. Season 2 will instead be handled by J.C. Staff, with Chikara Sakurai taking the place of season 1’s director Shingo Natsume. J.C. Staff is known for its work on series like Is It Wrong to Try to Pick Up Girls in a Dungeon? and Slayers series, so they do not slouch, but the change may still disappoint some fans.

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Wednesday, 08 May 2019 23:04

Using rsync to back up your Linux system

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Find out how to use rsync in a backup scenario.

Basic rsync commands are usually enough to manage your Linux backups, but a few extra options add speed and power to large backup sets.

 

It seems clear that backups are always a hot topic in the Linux world. Back in 2017, David Both offered Opensource.com readers tips on "Using rsync to back up your Linux system," and earlier this year, he published a poll asking us, "What's your primary backup strategy for the /home directory in Linux?" In another poll this year, Don Watkins asked, "Which open source backup solution do you use?"

My response is rsync. I really like rsync! There are plenty of large and complex tools on the market that may be necessary for managing tape drives or storage library devices, but a simple open source command line tool may be all you need.

Basic rsync

I managed the binary repository system for a global organization that had roughly 35,000 developers with multiple terabytes of files. I regularly moved or archived hundreds of gigabytes of data at a time. Rsync was used. This experience gave me confidence in this simple tool. (So, yes, I use it at home to back up my Linux systems.)

 

The basic rsync command is simple.

rsync -av SRC DST

Indeed, the rsync commands taught in any tutorial will work fine for most general situations. However, suppose we need to back up a very large amount of data. Something like a directory with 2,000 sub-directories, each holding anywhere from 50GB to 700GB of data. Running rsync on this directory could take a tremendous amount of time, particularly if you're using the checksum option, which I prefer.

Performance is likely to suffer if we try to sync large amounts of data or sync across slow network connections. Let me show you some methods I use to ensure good performance and reliability.

 

Advanced rsync

One of the first lines that appears when rsync runs is: "sending incremental file list." If you do a search for this line, you'll see many questions asking things like: why is it taking forever? or why does it seem to hang up?

Here's an example based on this scenario. Let's say we have a directory called /storage that we want to back up to an external USB device mounted at /media/WDPassport.

If we want to back up /storage to a USB external drive, we could use this command:

rsync -cav /storage /media/WDPassport

 

The c option tells rsync to use file checksums instead of timestamps to determine changed files, and this usually takes longer. In order to break down the /storage directory, I sync by subdirectory, using the find command. Here's an example:

find /storage -type d -exec rsync -cav {} /media/WDPassport \;

 

This looks OK, but if there are any files in the /storage directory, they will not be copied. So, how can we sync the files in /storage? There is also a small nuance where certain options will cause rsync to sync the . directory, which is the root of the source directory; this means it will sync the subdirectories twice, and we don't want that.

Long story short, the solution I settled on is a "double-incremental" script. This allows me to break down a directory, for example, breaking /home into the individual users' home directories or in cases when you have multiple large directories, such as music or family photos.

Here is an example of my script:

HOMES="alan"
DRIVE="/media/WDPassport"

for HOME in $HOMES; do
     cd /home/$HOME
     rsync -cdlptgov --delete . /$DRIVE/$HOME
     find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -not -name "." -exec rsync -crlptgov --delete {} /$DRIVE/$HOME \;
done

 

The first rsync command copies the files and directories that it finds in the source directory. However, it leaves the directories empty so we can iterate through them using the find command. This is done by passing the d argument, which tells rsync not to recurse the directory.

-d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing

 

The find command then passes each directory to rsync individually. Rsync then copies the directories' contents. This is done by passing the r argument, which tells rsync to recurse the directory.

-r, --recursive             recurse into directories

 

This keeps the increment file that rsync uses to a manageable size.

Most rsync tutorials use the a (or archive) argument for convenience. This is actually a compound argument.

-a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)

 

The other arguments that I pass would have been included in the a; those are lptg, and o.

-l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
-p, --perms                 preserve permissions
-t, --times                 preserve modification times
-g, --group                 preserve group
-o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)

 

The --delete option tells rsync to remove any files on the destination that no longer exist on the source. This way, the result is an exact duplication. You can also add an exclude for the .Trash directories or perhaps the .DS_Store files created by MacOS.

-not -name ".Trash*" -not -name ".DS_Store"

 

Be careful

One final recommendation: rsync can be a destructive command. Luckily, its thoughtful creators provided the ability to do "dry runs." If we include the noption, rsync will display the expected output without writing any data.

rsync -cdlptgovn --delete . /$DRIVE/$HOME

This script is scalable to very large storage sizes and large latency or slow link situations. I'm sure there is still room for improvement, as there always is. If you have suggestions, please share them in the comments.

Source: opensource.com

 

 

 

Marielle Price 

linux-16 (1).jpg

 

Linux has come a long way since 1991. These events mark its evolution.

1. Linus releases Linux

Linus Torvalds initially released Linux to the world in 1991 as a hobby. It didn't remain a hobby for long!

 

 

2. Linux distributions

In 1993, several Linux distributions were founded, notably DebianRed Hat, and Slackware. These were important because they demonstrated Linux's gains in market acceptance and development that enabled it to survive the tumultuous OS wars, browser wars, and protocol wars of the 1990s. In contrast, many established, commercial, and proprietary products did not make it past the turn of the millennium!

 

 

3. IBM's big investment in Linux

In 2000, IBM announced it would invest US$1 billion dollars in Linux. In his CNN Money article about the investment, Richard Richtmyer wrote: "The announcement underscores Big Blue's commitment to Linux and marks significant progress in moving the alternative operating system into the mainstream commercial market."

 

 

4. Hollywood adopts Linux

In 2002, it seemed the entire Hollywood movie industry adopted Linux. DisneyDreamworks, and Industrial Light & Magic all began making movies with Linux that year.

 

 

5. Linux for national security

In 2003, another big moment came with the US government's acceptance of Linux. Red Hat Linux was awarded the Department of Defense Common Operating Environment (COE) certification. This is significant because the government—intelligence and military agencies in particular—have very strict requirements for computing systems to prevent attacks and support national security. This opened the door for other agencies to use Linux. Later that year, the National Weather Service announced it would replace outdated systems with new computers running Linux.

 

 

6. The systems I managed

This "moment" is really a collection of my personal experiences. As my career progressed in the 2000s, I discovered several types of systems and devices that I managed were all running Linux. Some of the places I found Linux were VMware ESX, F5 Big-IP, Check Point UTM Edge, Cisco ASA, and PIX. This made me realize that Linux was truly viable and here to stay.

 

 

7. Ubuntu

In 2004, Canonical was founded by Mark Shuttleworth to provide an easy-to-use Linux desktop—Ubuntu Linux—based on the Debian distribution. I think Ubuntu Linux helped to expand the desktop Linux install base. It put Linux in front of many more people, from casual home users to professional software developers.

 

 

8. Google Linux

Google released two operating systems based on the Linux kernel: the Android mobile operating system in mid-2008 and Chrome OS, running on a Chromebook, in 2011. Since then, millions of Android mobile phones and Chromebooks have been sold.

 

 

9. The cloud is Linux

In the past 10 years or so, cloud computing has gone from a grandiose vision of computing on the internet to a reinvention of how we use computers personally and professionally. The big players in the cloud space are built on Linux, including Amazon Web ServicesGoogle Cloud Services, and Linode. Even in cases where we aren't certain, such as Microsoft Azure, running Linux workloads is well supported.

 

 

10. My car runs Linux

And so will yours! Many automakers began introducing Linux a few years ago. This led to the formation of the collaborative open source project called Automotive Grade Linux. Major car makers, such as Toyota and Subaru, have joined together to develop Linux-based automotive entertainment, navigation, and engine-management systems.

 

 

Share your favorite

Source: Opesource.com 

Author: Alan Formy-Duval

Marielle Price

 

cool-linux-wallpaper-1.jpg

If you’ve come here looking to fix an errant recursive chmod or chown command on an RPM-based Linux system, then here is the quick solution. Run the following commands using root privileges:

rpm --setugids -a
rpm --setperms -a

The 

--setugids

 option to the rpm command sets user/group ownership of files in a given package.  By using the 

-a

 option we’re telling rpm to do this on all the packages. The 

--setperms

 option sets the permissions of files in the given package.

If this fixes your issue, great!  If not, or you want to be thorough, continue reading.

Why Would You Need To Fix the Permissions and User/Group Ownership of Files

The most common reason you’ll need to follow the procedure below is to recover from a chmod or chown command that didn’t do what you initially intended it to do.  Using this procedure can save you from having to perform a complete system restore or a complete system reinstall.

In any case, perhaps someone else accidentally executed a recursive chmod or chown command on part or even the entire file system.  Even if the mistake is noticed and the command is stopped by typing Control-C as quickly as possible, many files could have been changed in that short period of time and you won’t be able to immediately tell which files were changed.

Problems Caused by Incorrect Permissions and Ownerships of Files

Having improper file permissions or ownerships can cause processes and services to behave in unexpected ways, stop working immediately, or prevent them from starting once they’ve been stopped.

For example, if the user running the web server process can’t read the files it’s supposed to serve, then the service it provides is effectively broken.

If a service is already running, it probably doesn’t need to read its configuration file(s) again as it has that information in memory.  However, if it can’t read its configuration when it attempts to start, it simply isn’t going to start.

Also, when some services start, they create a lock file to indicate that the service is running.  When the service stops, it deletes the lock file. However, if the permissions on that lock file are changed while the service is running such that the service can’t delete the file, then of course the lock file won’t get deleted.  This will prevent the service from starting again as it thinks it’s already running due to the presence of the lock file.

Perhaps the file that actually needs to be executed no longer has execute permissions.  Needless to say, that will definitely keep a service from starting.

If you have a service such as a database that writes data, it needs the proper permissions to write data to file, create new files, and so on.

Those are some common issues you can run into when file permissions and ownerships are not set properly.

Examples of Errant chmod and chown Commands

A common way a chmod or chown command can go wrong is by using recursion while making a typing mistake or providing an incorrect path.  For example, let’s say you’ve created some configuration files in the /var/lib/pgsql directory as the root user. You want to make sure all those files are owned by the postgres user, so you intend to run this command:

chown -R postgres /var/lib/pgsql

However, you accidentally add a space between the leading forward slash and var, making the actual command executed this one:

chown -R postgres / var/lib/pgsql

Oh what a difference a space can make!  Now, every file on the system is owned by the postgres user.

The reason is because chown rightly interpreted the first forward slash ( “/” ) as an absolute path to operate upon and “var/lib/pgsql” as a relative path to operate on.  The chown command, and any Linux command for that matter, only does what you tell it to do. It can’t read your mind. It doesn’t know that you intended to only supply the one path of /var/lib/pgsql.

Fixing File Ownerships and Permissions with the RPM Command

Continuing with our example, you should be able to execute the following command with root privileges and return to a fairly stable state:

rpm --setugids -a

This command will return the owner and group membership for every file that was installed via an RPM package.  Changing the ownership of a file can cause the set-user-ID (SUID) or set-group-ID (GUID) permission bits to be cleared.  Because of this, we need to restore the permissions on the files as well:

rpm --setperms -a

Now every file that is known by rpm will have the same permissions as when it was initially installed.

By the way, use this same process to fix an errant chmod command, too.  Be sure to use the same order of the commands due the SUID and GUID issues that could arise.  IE, run rpm with the 

--setperms

 options last.

Fixing File Ownerships and Permissions for Files Not Known by RPM

Not all the files on the system are going to be part of an RPM package.  Most data, either transient or permanent, will live outside of an RPM package.  Examples include temporary files, files used to store database data, lock files, web site files, some configuration files, and more depending on the system in question.

At least check the most important services that the system provides.  For example, if you are working on a database server, make sure the database service starts correctly.  If it’s a web server, make sure the web server service is functioning.

Here is the pattern:

systemctl restart SERVICE_NAME

If the service does not start, determine the reason by looking at the logs and messages:

journalctl -xe

Fix any issues and try again until the service starts.

Example:

systemctl restart postfix
# The service fails to start.
journalctl -xe
# The error message is “fatal: open lock file /var/lib/postfix/master.lock: cannot open file: Permission denied”
# Fix the obvious error.
rm /var/lib/postfix/master.lock
# Make sure there aren't other files that may have permissions or ownership issues in that directory.
ls -l /var/lib/postfix
# There are no other files.
# Try to start the service again.
systemctl start postfix
# No errors are reported.  The service is working! Lets double-check:
systemctl status postfix

You can check which services are in a failed stated by using the following command.

systemctl list-units --failed

Let’s say you reboot the system and want to make sure everything started ok.  Then run the above command and troubleshoot each service as needed.

Also, if you have good service monitoring in place, check there.  Your monitors should report if any service isn’t functioning appropriately and you can use this information to track down issues and fix them as needed.

A List of Directories that Are Not in the RPM Database

Here are some common places to look for files that live outside of an RPM package:

/var/log/SERVICE_NAME/  (Example: /var/log/httpd)
/var/lib/SERVICE_NAME/  (Example: /var/lib/pgsql)
/var/spool/SERVICE_NAME/  (Example: /var/spool/postfix)
/var/www
/usr/local
/run
/var/run/
/tmp
/var/tmp
/root
/home

Correcting Home Directory Ownership

If user home directories were changed do to a recursive chmod or chown command, then they need to be fixed.  If the ownership has changed, we can make an assumption that each home directory and all of its contents should be owned by the corresponding user.  For example, “/home/jason” should be owned by the “jason” user and any files in “/home/jason” should be owned by the “jason” user, too. Here’s a quick script to make this happen:

cd /home
for U in *
do
chown -R ${U} ${U}
done

Be careful with the chown command because we don’t want to create another mess!

It could be the case that some files in a given home directory should not be owned by the user.  If you think this might be the case, your best course of action is to restore the home directories from backups.  Speaking of which…

Why Not Just Restore from Backup?

If you have a good and recent backup, restoring that backup might be a great option.  If the server in question doesn’t actually store data, then it would be a perfect candidate for a restore as you won’t lose any data.

Performing a restore can give you the peace of mind that all the files on the system have the proper permissions and ownership.  After you’ve rigorously checked the services, the chances of any missed files causing operational issues is low. Nevertheless, there is a possibility of an issue arising at a later date.  A restore reduces this probability even further.

You could also use a hybrid approach where you run through the above process and selectively restore parts of the system.

The downside of performing a restore is that it can be slower that using the process outlined above.  It’s much quicker to change the permissions on a 1 TB file than it is to restore that file.

Of course, if you don’t have a backup that you can restore then you will have to follow a process like the one outlined above.

Marielle Price

linux-icon-t.jpg

We all know that we use cd command to move from one directory to another. To return back to the previous directory, we use “cd ..” or “cd <location_of_previous_directory>” commands. This is how I mostly navigate between directories until I found these trio commands, namely pushdpopd, and dirs. These three commands provides a way faster navigation between directories. Unlike cd command, pushd and popd commands are used to manage a stack of directories. Just enter into a directory and do something you want to do, and “pop” back to the previous directory quickly without having to type the long path name. dirs command is used to show the current directory stack, just like “ls” command. These trio commands are extremely useful when you’re working in a deep directory structure and scripts.

Still confused? No worries! I am going to explain these commands in layman terms with some practical examples.

Use Pushd, Popd And Dirs For Faster Navigation Between Directories

Pushd, popd ,and dirs commands are comes pre-installed, so let us just forget about the installation, and go ahead to see how to use them in real time.

Right now, I am in /tmp directory.

1.png

I am going to create ten directories, namely test1test2, …. test10 in /tmp directory.

As may already know, We can easily create multiple directories at once using mkdir command as shown below.

mkdir test1 test2 test3 test4 test5 test6 test7 test8 test9 test10

Or,

mkdir test{1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}

Now, let us move to test3 directory. To do so, just type:

pushd test3

2.png

To know where you are now, just type:

dirs

Sample output:

/tmp/test3 /tmp /tmp

3.png

As you see in the above output, dirs command shows we have two directories in the stack now. Do something you wish to do in this directory. Once done, you can go back to your previous working directory using command:

popd

4.png

No need to mention the full path of previous directory. If you use cd command, you should type “cd ..” or “cd <full_path_name>” to go back to the /tmp directory. But, using popd command we can instantly move back to the previous working directory. It’s simple as that.

Let us go again to test8 directory. To do so, run:

pushd test8

Sample output:

/tmp/test8 /tmp /tmp

5.png

Let us go deep in the stack.

pushd /tmp/test10

Sample output:

/tmp/test10 /tmp/test8 /tmp /tmp

6.png

We’re now in test10 directory, and we have totally 3 directories (test10, test8 and tmp) in our stack. Did you also notice the direction? Each new directory is getting added to the left. When we start poping directories off, they will come from the left as well.

Now, if you want to move to the previous working directory i.e test8 using cd command, the command would be like below.

cd /tmp/test8

But it is not necessary though. We can do it more quickly by running the popd command.

popd

Sample output:

/tmp/test8 /tmp /tmp

7.png

As you see in the above output, we moved to the previous working directory without having to type full path (i.e /tmp/test8).

Now, let us pop again?

popd

Sample output:

/tmp /tmp

8.png

Finally, We came back to the directory where we started.

In this example, I have used just ten directories. So, It may seem it is no big deal. Think about twenty or more directories? Would you type “cd <path_name>” or “cd ..” each time to move between directories? Nope. It would be time consuming. Just use pushd command to change to any directory in the stack and move back to your previous working directory using popd command. Also, you can use dirs command at any time to show the current directory stack at any time. You can add a series of paths onto your stack and then navigate to them in the reverse order. This will save you lot of time when you are navigating around stack of directories.


Also read:


You know now how to effectively navigate between directories without using cd command. These commands comes in handy when you’re working with large directory stack. You can quickly move back and forth through x amount of directories, and these commands are much useful working with scripts too.

That’s all for now. If you know any other methods, feel free to share them in the comment section below. I will be here with another interesting guide soon.

Marielle Price

Sunday, 21 April 2019 11:19

Learn To Navigate Directories Faster In Linux

Written by

Today we are going to learn some command line productivity hacks. As you already know, we use “cd” command to move between a stack of directories in Unix-like operating systems. In this guide I am going to teach you how to navigate directories faster without having to use “cd” command often. There could be many ways, but I only know the following five methods right now! I will keep updating this guide when I came across any methods or utilities to achieve this task in the days to come.

Five Different Methods To Navigate Directories Faster In Linux

Method 1: Using “Pushd”, “Popd” And “Dirs” Commands

This is the most frequent method that I use everyday to navigate between a stack of directories. The “Pushd”, “Popd”, and “Dirs” commands comes pre-installed in most Linux distributions, so don’t bother with installation. These trio commands are quite useful when you’re working in a deep directory structure and scripts. For more details, check our guide in the link given below.

Method 2: Using “bd” utility

The “bd” utility also helps you to quickly go back to a specific parent directory without having to repeatedly typing “cd ../../.” on your Bash.

Bd is also available in the Debian extra and Ubuntu universe repositories. So, you can install it using “apt-get” package manager in Debian, Ubuntu and other DEB based systems as shown below:

$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install bd

For other distributions, you can install as shown below.

$ sudo wget --no-check-certificate -O /usr/local/bin/bd https://raw.github.com/vigneshwaranr/bd/master/bd
$ sudo chmod +rx /usr/local/bin/bd
$ echo 'alias bd=". bd -si"' >> ~/.bashrc
$ source ~/.bashrc

To enable auto completion, run:

$ sudo wget -O /etc/bash_completion.d/bd https://raw.github.com/vigneshwaranr/bd/master/bash_completion.d/bd
$ source /etc/bash_completion.d/bd

The Bd utility has now been installed. Let us see few examples to understand how to quickly move through stack of directories using this tool.

Create some directories.

$ mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4/dir5/dir6/dir7/dir8/dir9/dir10

The above command will create a hierarchy of directories. Let us check directory structure using command:

$ tree dir1/
dir1/
└── dir2
 └── dir3
 └── dir4
 └── dir5
 └── dir6
 └── dir7
 └── dir8
 └── dir9
 └── dir10

9 directories, 0 files

Alright, we have now 10 directories. Let us say you’re currently in 7th directory i.e dir7.

$ pwd
/home/sk/dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4/dir5/dir6/dir7

You want to move to dir3. Normally you would type:

$ cd /home/sk/dir1/dir2/dir3

Right? yes! But it not necessary though! To go back to dir3, just type:

$ bd dir3

Now you will be in dir3.

1.png

Navigate Directories Faster In Linux Using “bd” Utility

Easy, isn’t it? It supports auto complete, so you can just type the partial name of a directory and hit the tab key to auto complete the full path.

To check the contents of a specific parent directory, you don’t need to inside that particular directory. Instead, just type:

$ ls `bd dir1`

The above command will display the contents of dir1 from your current working directory.

For more details, check out the following GitHub page.

Method 3: Using “Up” Shell script

The “Up” is a shell script allows you to move quickly to your parent directory. It works well on many popular shells such as Bash, Fish, and Zsh etc. Installation is absolutely easy too!

To install “Up” on Bash, run the following commands one bye:

$ curl --create-dirs -o ~/.config/up/up.sh https://raw.githubusercontent.com/shannonmoeller/up/master/up.sh
$ echo 'source ~/.config/up/up.sh' >> ~/.bashrc

The up script registers the “up” function and some completion functions via your “.bashrc” file.

Update the changes using command:

$ source ~/.bashrc

On zsh:

$ curl --create-dirs -o ~/.config/up/up.sh https://raw.githubusercontent.com/shannonmoeller/up/master/up.sh
$ echo 'source ~/.config/up/up.sh' >> ~/.zshrc

The up script registers the “up” function and some completion functions via your “.zshrc” file.

Update the changes using command:

$ source ~/.zshrc

On fish:

$ curl --create-dirs -o ~/.config/up/up.fish https://raw.githubusercontent.com/shannonmoeller/up/master/up.fish
$ source ~/.config/up/up.fish

The up script registers the “up” function and some completion functions via “funcsave”.

Now it is time to see some examples.

Let us create some directories.

$ mkdir -p dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4/dir5/dir6/dir7/dir8/dir9/dir10

Let us say you’re in 7th directory i.e dir7.

$ pwd
/home/sk/dir1/dir2/dir3/dir4/dir5/dir6/dir7

You want to move to dir3. Using “cd” command, we can do this by typing the following command:

$ cd /home/sk/dir1/dir2/dir3

But it is really easy to go back to dir3 using “up” script:

$ up dir3

That’s it. Now you will be in dir3. To go one directory up, just type:

$ up 1

To go back two directory type:

$ up 2

It’s that simple. Did I type the full path? Nope. Also it supports tab completion. So just type the partial directory name and hit the tab to complete the full path.

For more details, check out the GitHub page.

Please be mindful that “bd” and “up” tools can only help you to go backward i.e to the parent directory of the current working directory. You can’t move forward. If you want to switch to dir10 from dir5, you can’t! Instead, you need to use “cd” command to switch to dir10. These two utilities are meant for quickly moving you to the parent directory!

Method 4: Using “Shortcut” tool

This is yet another handy method to switch between different directories quickly and easily. This is somewhat similar to alias command. In this method, we create shortcuts to frequently used directories and use the shortcut name to go to that respective directory without having to type the path. If you’re working in deep directory structure and stack of directories, this method will greatly save some time. You can learn how it works in the guide given below.

Method 5: Using “CDPATH” Environment variable

This method doesn’t require any installation. CDPATH is an environment variable. It is somewhat similar to PATH variable which contains many different paths concatenated using ‘:’ (colon). The main difference between PATH and CDPATH variables is the PATH variable is usable with all commands whereas CDPATH works only for cd command.

I have the following directory structure.

2.png

Directory structure

As you see, there are four child directories under a parent directory named “ostechnix”.

Now add this parent directory to CDPATH using command:

$ export CDPATH=~/ostechnix

You now can instantly cd to the sub-directories of the parent directory (i.e ~/ostechnix in our case) from anywhere in the filesystem.

For instance, currently I am in /var/mail/ location.


3.pngTo cd into 
~/ostechnix/Linux/ directory, we don’t have to use the full path of the directory as shown below:

$ cd ~/ostechnix/Linux

Instead, just mention the name of the sub-directory you want to switch to:

$ cd Linux

It will automatically cd to ~/ostechnix/Linux directory instantly.

4.png

As you can see in the above output, I didn’t use “cd <full-path-of-subdir>”. Instead, I just used “cd <subdir-name>” command.

Please note that CDPATH will allow you to quickly navigate to only one child directory of the parent directory set in CDPATH variable. It doesn’t much help for navigating a stack of directories (directories inside sub-directories, of course).

To find the values of CDPATH variable, run:

$ echo $CDPATH

Sample output would be:

/home/sk/ostechnix

Set multiple values to CDPATH

Similar to PATH variable, we can also set multiple values (more than one directory) to CDPATH separated by colon (:).

$ export CDPATH=.:~/ostechnix:/etc:/var:/opt

Make the changes persistent

As you already know, the above command (export) will only keep the values of CDPATH until next reboot. To permanently set the values of CDPATH, just add them to your ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile files.

$ vi ~/.bash_profile

Add the values:

export CDPATH=.:~/ostechnix:/etc:/var:/opt

Hit ESC key and type :wq to save and exit.

Apply the changes using command:

$ source ~/.bash_profile

Clear CDPATH

To clear the values of CDPATH, use export CDPATH=””. Or, simply delete the entire line from ~/.bashrc or ~/.bash_profile files.

In this article, you have learned the different ways to navigate directory stack faster and easier in Linux. As you can see, it’s not that difficult to browse a pile of directories faster. Now stop typing “cd ../../..” endlessly by using these tools. If you know any other worth trying tool or method to navigate directories faster, feel free to let us know in the comment section below. I will review and add them in this guide.

And, that’s all for now. Hope this helps. More good stuffs to come. Stay tuned!

Marielle Price

Saturday, 20 April 2019 12:14

KDE 19.04 lanza Aplicaciones para Plasma

Written by

SzHnqsdfsdiM.jpg

La comunidad KDE agrupa todas sus aplicaciones de código abierto como Aplicaciones de KDE. Este paquete de software se actualiza de vez en cuando, aportando nuevas características y mejoras a aplicaciones populares como Kdenlive, Dolphin, Kmail, Kate, Konsole, Gwenview, KmPlot, KMail, KOrganizer, Okular, Kontact, etc.

Como resultado de tres meses de desarrollo, la primera versión de Aplicaciones de KDE de 2019 está aquí.

El paquete viene con más de 150 bugs corregidos que cubren una amplia variedad de pequeños y grandes cambios.

Aplicaciones de KDE 19.04: Nuevas características y cambios

El gestor de archivos de KDE, Dolphin ha recibido mucha atención en esta versión. Con una mejor compatibilidad con las miniaturas, ahora puedes ver vistas previas de miniaturas de nuevos tipos de archivos como MS Office, Blender, .epub, .fb2 eBook y PCX.

app1904_dolphin01-1024x818.png

Con KDE Apps 19.04, ahora puedes elegir qué página cerrar en la vista dividida. El etiquetado de archivos se ha mejorado con la opción de hacerlo utilizando el menú contextual.

Pasando al editor de vídeo Kdenlive de KDE; su código fuente ha sido ampliamente reescrito para hacer la arquitectura subyacente más fiable y eficiente. Hay mejoras y adiciones de características en la línea de tiempo, navegación por el teclado, grabación de audio en pista, soporte de visualización, copiar/pegar, etc.

app1904_kdenlive-1024x576.png

 

El editor de texto Kate ahora viene con más plugins habilitados por defecto para proporcionar una mejor experiencia. Un pequeño pero bienvenido cambio es la apertura de múltiples archivos usando la terminal en el mismo orden que se especifica.

Por último, el visor de imágenes Gwenview ahora ofrece soporte completo para la pantalla táctil y también puede utilizar diferentes gestos de teléfonos inteligentes. Si tienes una pantalla de alta resolución, el soporte completo de Alta DPI también será beneficioso. También hay varias mejoras en el gestor de correos electrónicos Kmail.

app1904_kmail-1024x647.png

Puedes encontrar el conjunto detallado de cambios en la página de anuncios.

En noticias relacionadas con KDE, ayer, Canonical anunció el jueves el lanzamiento de Kubuntu 19.04, que incluye Plasma 5.15 de escritorio, el kernel de Linux 5.0, KDE Apps 18.12.3 (aún), y Qt 5.12. Si utilizas Kubuntu 18.10, puedes realizar la actualización. No hace falta decir que también puedes instalar pronto la última versión de KDE Apps 19.04 para obtener las nuevas características.

Marielle Price1

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